Monday, March 23, 2015

mit at boston of Massachusetts state

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. Researchers worked on computers, radar, and inertial guidance during World War II and the Cold War. Post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre (68.0 ha) campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile (1.6 km) along the northern bank of the Charles River basin.
MIT, with five schools and one college which contain a total of 32 departments, is traditionally known for research and education in the physical sciences and engineering, and more recently in biology, economics, linguistics, and management as well. The "Engineers" sponsor 31 sports, most teams of which compete in the NCAA Division III's New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference; the Division I rowing programs compete as part of the EARC and EAWRC.
MIT is often cited as among the world's top universities.[9][10][11][12] As of 2014, 81 Nobel laureates, 52 National Medal of Science recipients, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 38 MacArthur Fellows, and 2 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT. MIT has a strong entrepreneurial culture and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world.[13]


Foundation and vision

Stereographic card showing an MIT mechanical drafting studio, 19th century (photo by E.L. Allen), left/right inverted.
Original Rogers Building, Back Bay, Boston, 19th century (photo by E.L. Allen)
In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed.[15][16] A proposal by William Barton Rogers a charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861.[17]
Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances.[18][19] He did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education,[20] proposing that:
"The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, and along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws."[21]
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.[22][23]

Early developments

A 1905 map of MIT's Boston campus.
Two days after the charter was issued, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865.[24] The new institute had a mission that matched the intent of the 1862 Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes", and was a land-grant school.[25][a] In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay.[26]
MIT was informally called "Boston Tech".[26] The institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date.[27] Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.[28] Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced,[29][30] new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand.[28]
The curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science.[31] The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president (and former MIT faculty) Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School.[32] There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard.[33] In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students, and alumni.[33] However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme.[33]
Plaque in Building 6 honoring George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak, who was revealed as the anonymous "Mr. Smith" who helped maintain MIT's independence
In 1916, MIT moved to a spacious new campus largely consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.[34][35] The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth[36] and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith," starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, and founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT.[37]

Curricular reforms

In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios.[38] The Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering."[39] Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on tuition than on endowments or grants for its funding.[40] The school was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934.[41]
Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at MIT that "the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school", a "partly unjustified" perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities.[42][43] The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the MIT Sloan School of Management were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of Science and Engineering. Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs.[44][45] The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more humanistically oriented presidents Howard W. Johnson and Jerome Wiesner between 1966 and 1980.[46]

Wednesday, March 4, 2015

the Wang in Hwang?

The Wang is the head,
The Lang is the Man,
The Nu is the Maiden,
The Moon is the Sun.
Washington D. C. is our capital,
Huafu is our government,
Barack is our president,
John Kerry is secretary of state.
Frank Wang rules OSSM,
Scott Jackson conducts SHS orchestra,
Don't forget Stacy Sullivian and Jennifer Wisdom,
Christopher Clark befriends with Chuck Reed...
There is a Wang in Hwang,
There is a Jupiter in sixteen Dimentional Pond,
There is a dog at Bill Gate's home front,
There is a Wu at Henry Hargis's Wunder Zoo.

Hello, happy March, this is an award from poetry rally week 81, amazing?!!!!!!

for week 82, I wish to nominate  Megha  and Gerry Boyd